Scotland



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The Scottish National Party , which supports Scottish independence, was first elected to form the Scottish Government in 2007. The new government established a “National Conversation” on constitutional points, proposing a variety of choices such as rising the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the final smok tfv8 xbaby option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a fee to analyze the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide our bodies. The Scotland Act 2012, based on proposals by the fee, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to the Scottish Parliament.

The head of the Scottish Government is the primary minister of Scotland, who’s supported by the deputy first minister of Scotland. Scotland can be a member of the British–Irish Council, sending 5 members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly, in addition to being part of the Joint Ministerial Committee, represented by the first minister. Other routes, served by a quantity of firms, join southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. DFDS Seaways operated a freight-only Rosyth – Zeebrugge ferry service, till a fireplace damaged the vessel DFDS had been using. Ferries serving each the internal and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Other distinctive options of the nationwide sporting tradition embrace the Highland games, curling and shinty. In boxing, Scotland has had 13 world champions, including Ken Buchanan, Benny Lynch and Jim Watt.
In the twentieth century the Scottish Renaissance noticed a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language as a medium for critical literature. Members of the motion had been adopted by a brand new generation of post-war poets together with Edwin Morgan, who could be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish authorities in 2004.

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Use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew’s Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century. Highlanders can thank James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of tartans. There are fifteen Scottish universities, a few of which are amongst the oldest in the world. Scotland had extra universities per capita in QS’ World University Rankings’ prime 100 in 2012 than some other nation.
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However, the Highlands remained poor, the one a half of mainland Britain to proceed to expertise recurrent famine, with a restricted vary of products exported out of the area, negligible industrial production, but a continued inhabitants progress that examined the subsistence agriculture. These issues, and the need to enhance agriculture and income had been the driving forces of the continued Highland Clearances, in which most of the inhabitants of the Highlands suffered eviction as lands were enclosed, principally in order that they could be used for sheep farming. The first section of the clearances adopted patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain. The second section was pushed by overpopulation, the Highland Potato Famine and the collapse of industries that had relied on the wartime economy of the Napoleonic Wars. The inhabitants of Scotland grew steadily within the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and four,472,000 in 1901.

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On the excessive mountain tops, species together with ptarmigan, mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white color phase during winter months. Remnants of the native Scots pine forest exist and inside these areas the Scottish crossbill, the UK’s only endemic chook species and vertebrate, may be found alongside capercaillie, Scottish wildcat, pink squirrel and pine marten. Various animals have been re-introduced, together with the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the pink kite in the Nineteen Eighties, and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Today, a lot of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies inside the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest stay at eighty four areas throughout Scotland.

The RN’s nuclear submarine base opened with 4 Resolution-class Polaris submarines at the expanded Faslane Naval Base on the Gare Loch. The first patrol of a Trident-armed submarine occurred in 1994, though the US base was closed at the finish of the Cold War. In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had round 158,000 employees together with more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over three,800 consultants.

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The first to hold the workplace of first minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served till his sudden death in 2000. The earliest extant literature composed in what’s now Scotland was in Brythonic speech within the sixth century, but is preserved as a half of Welsh literature. The first surviving major textual content in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour’s epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I, and was quickly adopted by a series of vernacular romances and prose works. In the 16th century, the crown’s patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry, however the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a significant centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the vape battery safety and tips 18th century by figures including James Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the primary Scottish poet to realize an international reputation and was a serious influence on the European Enlightenment. It was also a significant affect on Robert Burns, whom many consider the nationwide poet, and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels did a lot to outline Scottish identity in the nineteenth century. Towards the tip of the Victorian period numerous Scottish-born authors achieved worldwide reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald.

The French military sought the assist of Scotland in 1415 in the course of the Battle of Agincourt which was near bringing the Kingdom of France to break down. The Auld Alliance was seen as essential for Scotland and its place inside Europe, having signed a treaty of army, economic and diplomatic co-operation with a wealthy European nation. There had been an agreement between Scotland and France that allowed residents of both international locations to carry twin citizenship, nonetheless, this was revoked by the French Government in 1903. In recent instances, there have been arguments that indicate that the Auld Alliance was by no means formally ended by both Scotland or France, and that many components of the treaty could stay in place today. Scotland and France do, nevertheless, continue to have a particular relationship, with a Statement of Intent being signed in 2013 which committed both Scotland and France to constructing on shared history, friendship, co-operation between governments and cultural exchange programmes. In August 2012, the Scottish inhabitants reached an all-time high of 5.25 million individuals.

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Scotland’s pure larder of recreation, dairy merchandise, fish, fruit, and greens is the chief think about conventional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and an absence of spices from abroad, as these had been traditionally rare and costly. Irn-Bru is the commonest Scottish carbonated delicate drink, typically described as “Scotland’s other nationwide drink” . During the Late Middle Ages and early trendy era, French delicacies played a task in Scottish cookery because of cultural exchanges caused by the “Auld Alliance”, particularly in the course of the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, introduced an entourage of French staff who are considered liable for revolutionising Scots cooking and for a few of Scotland’s distinctive meals terminology. Scotland’s universities are complemented within the provision of Further and Higher Education by forty three faculties.
English is the primary language by customized and usage, with Scots, Scottish Gaelic and British Sign Language additionally recognised as the primary linguistic groups in Scotland, in accordance with the Scottish Government. Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are formally recognised as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

This space has additionally skilled intense volcanism, Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once a lot bigger volcano. This space is relatively low-lying, though even right here hills such because the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely removed from view. The complete of Scotland was covered by ice sheets in the course of the Pleistocene ice ages and the panorama is much affected by glaciation. During the Second World War, Scotland was focused by Nazi Germany largely because of its factories, shipyards, and coal mines. Cities similar to Glasgow and Edinburgh had been focused by German bombers, as had been smaller cities principally situated in the central belt of the nation. Perhaps probably the most important air-raid in Scotland was the Clydebank Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in the area.

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The success of the SNP in achieving a majority in the Scottish Parliament paved the way in which for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence. More powers, notably in relation to taxation, had been devolved to the Scottish Parliament after the referendum, following cross-party talks within the Smith Commission. Scottish trade got here out of the despair slump by a dramatic enlargement of its industrial exercise, absorbing unemployed males and many ladies as well. The shipyards had been the centre of more activity, however many smaller industries produced the equipment wanted by the British bombers, tanks and warships. Agriculture prospered, as did all sectors aside from coal mining, which was operating mines close to exhaustion. Increased earnings, and the extra equal distribution of meals, obtained via a good rationing system, dramatically improved the well being and diet.

The causes given had been that, in Scotland, births have been outnumbering the variety of deaths, and immigrants were shifting to Scotland from overseas. In 2011, forty three,seven hundred individuals moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.

These are being phased out and changed by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. The college leaving age is 16, after which students might choose to stay at college and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A small variety of college students at sure non-public, unbiased colleges may comply with the English system and research in direction of GCSEs and A and AS-Levels as a substitute.
  • The legal system within Scotland has additionally remained separate from these of England and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a definite jurisdiction in each public and private legislation.
  • The despair mirrored what Finlay describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that ready native enterprise and political leaders to accept a model new orthodoxy of centralised authorities economic planning when it arrived in the course of the Second World War.
  • The success of the SNP in attaining a majority in the Scottish Parliament paved the means in which for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence.
  • In the late nineteenth century growing divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a further cut up in the Free Church because the inflexible Calvinists broke away to kind the Free Presbyterian Church in 1893.
  • Scotland has restricted self-government throughout the United Kingdom, in addition to illustration within the British Parliament.
  • In local authorities, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since 1996, whose councils are liable for the supply of all native authorities providers.

The country produces 1% of the world’s revealed analysis with lower than 0.1% of the world’s inhabitants, and better education establishments account for 9% of Scotland’s service sector exports. Scotland’s University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award levels. A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three primary British political events with varying enthusiasm throughout recent historical past. A earlier Labour chief, John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament because the “settled will of the Scottish people”. The devolved Scottish Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 discovered majority support for each creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to range revenue tax. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt have been adopted by members of the social elite, not simply in Scotland, however across Europe, prompted by the recognition of Macpherson’s Ossian cycle after which Walter Scott’s Waverley novels.
After 1945, Scotland’s financial scenario worsened because of overseas competitors, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes. Only in current a long time has the nation enjoyed one thing of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this restoration included a resurgent monetary companies trade, electronics manufacturing, , and the North Sea oil and gas business. The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher’s authorities of the Community Charge one 12 months before the remainder of Great Britain, contributed to a rising motion for Scottish control over home affairs. Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998 was passed by the British Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with duty for most legal guidelines particular to Scotland.
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This has, however, been combined with an increase within the service sector of the economic system, which has grown to be the biggest sector in Scotland. During the G8 Summit in 2005, the first minister Jack McConnell welcomed every head of presidency of the G8 nations to the nation’s Glasgow Prestwick Airport on behalf of then prime minister Tony Blair. At the same time, McConnell and the then Scottish Executive pioneered the way ahead to launch what would become the Scotland Malawi Partnership which co-ordinates Scottish activities to strengthen current links with Malawi. During McConnell’s time as first minister, several relations with Scotland, together with Scottish and Russian relations strengthened following a go to by President of Russia Vladimir Putin to Edinburgh.
Community Councils are informal organisations that symbolize particular sub-divisions within each council space. Whilst overseas coverage remains a reserved matter, the Scottish Government still has the power and skill to strengthen and develop Scotland, the financial system and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign companies, worldwide devolved, regional and central governments to spend money on Scotland.
As a outcome, through the interval 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and one other 750,000 Scots relocated to England. Scotland is split into 32 administrative subdivisions or native authorities, generally identified as council areas.

In common with countries corresponding to France, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Scotland experienced famines during the 1690s. Mortality, reduced childbirths and increased emigration decreased the inhabitants of elements of the nation about 10–15%. In 1698, the Company of Scotland attempted a project to safe a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. Almost each Scottish landowner who had cash to spare is alleged to have invested in the Darien scheme. In 1641 and again in 1643 the Parliament of Scotland unsuccessfully sought a union with England which was “federative” and never “incorporating”, by which Scotland would retain a separate parliament.
Scotland has a selection of production companies which produce films and television programmes for Scottish, British and worldwide audiences. Popular films associated with Scotland by way of Scottish production or being filmed in Scotland embrace Braveheart , Highlander , Trainspotting , Red Road , Neds , The Angel’s Share , Brave and Outlaw King . The nationwide animal of Scotland is the unicorn, which has been a Scottish heraldic image for the reason that 12th century. Other presently much less in style candidates for the National Anthem of Scotland include Scotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae and A Man’s A Man for A’ That. As one of many Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish tradition are represented at interceltic occasions at house and over the world.
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In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland in the Union of the Crowns, and moved to London. The first Union Jack was designed at James’s behest, to be flown along with the St Andrew’s Cross on Scots vessels at sea. Roman military authorities was withdrawn from the island altogether by the early fifth century, resulting within the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the immigration of the Saxons to southern Scotland and the the rest of japanese Great Britain. Historically, the utilization of “Scotch” as an adjective similar to “Scottish” or “Scots” was commonplace. Modern use of the time period describes merchandise of Scotland (usually meals or drink-related).
Scotland hosts a number of music festivals including Celtic Connections , and the Hebridean Celtic Festival . Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient , the Pan Celtic Festival , and the National Celtic Festival , characteristic elements of Scottish tradition corresponding to language, music and dance. Granted university status in 1992, the University of the West of Scotland can hint its history back to 1897, as Paisley College of Technology. Scotland’s gross home product , including oil and gasoline produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar 12 months 2012. As of April 2019 the Scottish unemployment price was 3.3%, beneath the UK’s total rate of three.8%, and the Scottish employment rate was seventy five.9%. The first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced the following day that consequently a model new independence referendum was “highly likely”. At Holyrood, Sturgeon’s governing SNP continues to campaign for such a referendum; in December 2019 a formal request for the powers to carry one beneath Section 30 of the Scotland Act was submitted.

The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services in comparability with the rest of the UK. For occasion, college education and a few care companies for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, whereas fees are paid in the remainder of the UK. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile border with England to the southeast and is in any other case surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and the Irish Sea to the south. The nation also contains more than 790 islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt – the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands – in the Scottish Lowlands. Use of a simplified symbol related to Saint Andrew, the saltire, has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament of Scotland decreeing in 1385 that Scottish troopers should put on a white Saint Andrew’s Cross on the entrance and back of their tunics.
During an official go to to the Republic of Ireland in 2016, Sturgeon claimed that is it “essential for Ireland and Scotland and the entire of the British Isles that Ireland has a powerful ally in Scotland”. During the same engagement, Sturgeon became the first head of government to address the Seanad Éireann, the higher home of the Oireachtas . In the aftermath of the United Kingdom’s determination to withdraw from the European Union in 2016, the Scottish Government has known as for there to be a joint strategy from each of the devolved governments. Since devolution in 1999, Scotland has devolved stronger working relations across the two other devolved governments, the Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive.
The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to almost 1 / 4 of Scotland’s inhabitants. The Central Belt is where most of the primary cities and cities are located, together with Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. The Scottish Lowlands host 80% of the whole population, the place the Central Belt accounts for 3.5 million individuals.
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At Westminster, the governing second Johnson ministry of the Conservative and Unionist Party is opposed to another referendum and has refused the first minister’s request. Because constitutional affairs are reserved issues under the Scotland Act, the Scottish Parliament would again should be granted short-term extra powers under Section 30 so as to maintain a legally binding vote. In August 2009 the SNP proposed a invoice to carry a referendum on independence in November 2010.
Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of enormous numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, primarily to the rising lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a metamorphosis within the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination inside Scotland.
Glasgow City is the biggest council space when it comes to inhabitants, with Highland being the biggest by method of area. Limited self-governing power, masking matters such as training, social services and roads and transportation, is devolved from the Scottish Government to each subdivision. Scotland is the second largest country within the United Kingdom, and accounted for eight.3% of the population in 2012.

Scotland, together with the Welsh Government, British Government in addition to the Northern Ireland government, participate in the Joint Ministerial Committee which allows every government to debate policy issues collectively and work together throughout every authorities to seek out options. The Scottish Government considers the successful re-establishment of the Plenary, and institution of the Domestic fora to be important facets of the connection with the British Government and the other devolved administrations. Aspire Tigon Coils 1 2ohm 5 Pack lays emphasis on the rules of excellent communication, session and co-operation.
In the late nineteenth century, numerous Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, similar to Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald. Glasgow became one of many largest cities in the world and known as “the Second City of the Empire” after London. After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron , which rapidly changed the wooden crusing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. After one other proposal from the English House of Lords was rejected in 1695, and an additional Lords motion was voted down within the House of Commons in 1700, the Parliament of Scotland again rejected union in 1702.

The shipbuilding trade expanded by a third and anticipated renewed prosperity, however instead, a severe despair hit the economic system by 1922 and it didn’t fully recover till 1939. The interwar years had been marked by financial stagnation in rural and urban areas, and excessive unemployment. Indeed, the struggle brought with it deep social, cultural, financial, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots contemplated their declension, as the primary social indicators corresponding to poor well being, unhealthy housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and financial stagnation at greatest, or even a downward spiral. Service overseas on behalf of the Empire misplaced its attract to bold young individuals, who left Scotland completely. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy trade and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable options. The despair reflected what Finlay describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to simply accept a brand new orthodoxy of centralised authorities economic planning when it arrived in the course of the Second World War.
Colleges provide National Certificates, Higher National Certificates, and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland’s population has the suitable abilities and information to fulfill office needs. In 2014, analysis reported by the Office for National Statistics found that Scotland was essentially the most extremely educated country in Europe and among the many most well-educated on the planet by way of tertiary education attainment, with roughly 40% of individuals in Scotland aged 16–64 educated to NVQ level 4 and above. Based on the unique knowledge for EU statistical regions, all 4 Scottish regions ranked considerably above the European average for completion of tertiary-level education by 25- to 64-year-olds. The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland’s national school curriculum, presently supplies the curricular framework for youngsters and young individuals from age three to 18. Formal main training begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); youngsters in Scotland examine Standard Grades, or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and sixteen.
The failure of the Darien Scheme bankrupted the landowners who had invested, though not the burghs. Nevertheless, the nobles’ chapter, together with the specter of an English invasion, played a leading function in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.

Caused by Why Would You Use Electronic Cigarettes of refrigeration and imports of lamb, mutton and wool from overseas, the 1870s brought with them a collapse of sheep prices and an abrupt halt in the earlier sheep farming increase. The process was named after Balmoral estate, bought by Queen Victoria in 1848, that fuelled the romanticisation of upland Scotland and initiated an influx of the newly wealthy buying related estates in the following many years. In the late nineteenth century just 118 individuals owned half of Scotland, with almost 60 per cent of the entire nation being part of capturing estates. While their relative significance has considerably declined as a result of altering leisure pursuits all through the twentieth century, deer stalking and grouse taking pictures remain of prime significance on many private estates in Scotland. Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish colleges. From 1830 the state started to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding faculties by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free faculties, run by native faculty boards. The historic University of Glasgow became a pacesetter in British greater schooling by offering the academic needs of youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the higher class.
Decisions are made by councillors who’re elected at local elections every five years. The head of every council is often the Lord Provost alongside the Leader of the council, with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council space.

There are many more folks with Scottish ancestry residing overseas than the entire inhabitants of Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent. Ulster’s Protestant population is principally of lowland Scottish descent, and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now dwelling within the US. About 20% of the original European settler inhabitants of New Zealand got here from Scotland. Many of those sediments have financial significance for it’s here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland’s industrial revolution are discovered.
In 2014, whole Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) had been estimated to be £27.5 billion. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the country’s main export markets.

On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England. The following 12 months, twin Acts of Union have been handed by each parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707 with well-liked opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. The newly formed Parliament of Great Britain rejected proposals from the Parliament of Ireland that the third kingdom be integrated in the union. In 1999, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, within the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy.
The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all different areas regarding Scotland. It initially had solely a restricted power to differ revenue tax, but powers over taxation and social security have been significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016. The 2016 Act gave the Scottish Government powers to handle the affairs of the Crown Estate in Scotland, leading to the creation of Crown Estate Scotland. Scotland additionally has a major Roman Catholic population, 19% professing that religion, significantly in Greater Glasgow and the north-west. After the Reformation, Roman Catholicism in Scotland continued in the Highlands and some western islands like Uist and Barra, and it was strengthened during the 19th century by immigration from Ireland. Other Christian denominations in Scotland embrace the Free Church of Scotland, and various different Presbyterian offshoots. In the 2011 Census, 62% of Scotland’s population said their national identification as ‘Scottish only’, 18% as ‘Scottish and British’, 8% as ‘British solely’, and 4% selected ‘different identification solely’.


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Author Biography: Elena Ognivtseva



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